Politicians burned in effigy at rally at British Columbia legislature, underlining disturbing trend
Throughout history the United States has used propaganda techniques, especially in times of war and international crisis. Americans demonstrated a deep understanding of the effectiveness of propaganda as a foreign policy tool from the time of the War of Independence. The US government used large-scale propaganda as an adjunct to military operations during the Total Wars of the early 20th century, but the Cold War institutionalized propaganda as a major component of US foreign policy. The use of propaganda by governments has increased in the twenty-first century, thanks to the exploitation of the communications revolution. Propaganda, on the other hand, has a bad connotation in the minds of most Americans, who view it as a treacherous, deceptive and manipulative tactic. Americans have always viewed propaganda as something carried out by “other” people and countries, when all they do is persuade themselves, enlighten themselves, or educate themselves. To cover up their propaganda, the Americans have used various euphemisms.
The term “propaganda” has generated as many definitions as it has euphemisms. Harold Lass Bien, a pioneer of propaganda studies in the United States, defines it as “the management of collective attitudes through the manipulation of meaningful symbols.” Like other social scientists in the 1930s, he emphasized its psychological elements: Propaganda was an unconscious manipulation of psychological symbols to accomplish secret goals. Later analysts pointed out that propaganda was a planned and deliberate act of opinion management. A 1958 study prepared for the United States Army, for example, defined propaganda as “the planned dissemination of news, information, special arguments, and appeals designed to influence the beliefs, thoughts, and actions of a specific group ”. In the 1990s, historian Oliver Thomson defined propaganda broadly to include both deliberate and unintentional means of behavior modification, describing it as “the use of communication skills of all kinds to gain changes in attitude or behavior among one group by another ”. Many communication specialists have emphasized that propaganda is a neutral activity aimed only at persuasion, in order to free propagandists (and their profession) from pejorative associations. Some social scientists have abandoned the term altogether because it cannot be defined with any degree of precision; and others, like the influential French philosopher Jacques Ellul, used the term but refused to define it because any definition would inevitably leave something out.
For a brief period during the 1940s and early 1950s, the terms “psychological warfare” and “political warfare” were openly adopted by propaganda scholars and politicians. Increasingly, they have turned to euphemisms like “international communication” and “public communication” to make the idea of propaganda more acceptable to the national public. During the Cold War, common expressions also included “the war of ideas”, “the battle of hearts and minds”, “the struggle for the minds and wills of men”, “the war of thought”, ” ideological warfare “,” nervous war “,” campaign of truth “,” war of words “, and others. Even the term “cold war” was used to refer to propaganda techniques and strategy (as in “cold war tactics”). Later, the terms “communication”, “public diplomacy”, “psychological operations” (or “psyops”), “special operations” and “information warfare” became fashionable. Political propaganda and measures to influence media coverage were also referred to as ‘turning to’, and political propagandists were ‘publicity doctors’ or, more imaginatively, ‘media consultants’ and ‘advisers’. in image ”.
Summary of the news:
- Politicians burned in effigy at rally at British Columbia legislature, underlining disturbing trend
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